Dr. Meredith Carroll & Captain Shem Malmquist

Dr. Meredith Carroll, Associate Professor of Aviation Human Factors, Florida Institute of Technology

Dr. Meredith Carroll is an Associate Professor of Aviation Human Factors at Florida Institute of Technology.  She has over 15 years of experience in training system research and design, training in complex systems, individual/team performance assessment, and training effectiveness evaluation. She has been involved in design, development and evaluation of training and performance assessment techniques and tools for the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Army Research Lab. Recently, her research has focused on studying the impact of stress on decision making, including developing predictive models of an individual’s resilience and ability to perform under stress, measures that can quantify stress in real time and adaptive training approaches to improve decision making under stress. She has performed extensive work conducting task analysis, designing virtual training environments and adaptive training tools, and conducting training effectiveness/transfer evaluations and experimentation. She received her B.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Virginia, her Master’s in Aviation Science from Florida Institute of Technology, and her Ph.D. in Applied Experimental Psychology and Human Factors from the University of Central Florida. 


Captain Shem Malmquist, Visiting Professor, Florida Institute of Technology

Captain Shem Malmquist is a visiting professor at the Florida Institute of Technology and an active current B-777 Captain operating predominantly international routes. In addition to being an international pilot for the bulk of the last 32 years, he has taught aerobatics and instructed in a variety of both general aviation and transport aircraft. Captain Malmquist has published numerous technical and academic articles stemming from his work on flight safety and accident investigation. His most recent work has involved approaches to risk analysis and accident prevention utilizing MIT’s System Theoretic Accident Models and Processes (STAMP) and facilitating the integration of these methods on behalf of several organizations.

His past work includes Automation and Human Factors lead for the Commercial Aviation Safety Team’s Joint Safety Implementation Team, Loss of Control working group, as well as the Aircraft State Awareness working group and the Joint Implementation Measurement and Data Analysis Team. He also has either led or been deeply involved in several major aircraft accident investigations, performing operations, human factors, systems and aircraft performance analysis.

Captain Malmquist’s education includes a Masters (MSc) degree in Human Factors in Aeronautics through the Florida Institute of Technology, a Bachelors of Science (BSc) from Embry-Riddle University, and an Associate of Science (ASc) through Mt. San Antonio College.

He is an elected Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society, a full member of ISASI, and a member of the Resilience Engineering Association, AIAA, the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, IEEE, the Flight Safety Foundation and SAE where he also serves as a voting member of the Flight Deck and Handling Quality Standards for Transport Aircraft committee and is a member of the Aerospace Behavior Engineering Technology and the Lithium Battery Packaging Performance Committees.

In addition to his papers on flight safety and accident investigation topics, he is the co-author (with Roger Rapoport) of the book “Angle of Attack” on the Air France 447 accident and its implications on aviation safety. He has also been a speaker at numerous events, including InfoShare, FSF BASS, ISASI, WATS, the Mid-South Aviation Weather Symposium and many more.

Training Approaches to Promote Pilot Resilience

Resilient performance is critical for pilots given the high stakes of their profession. What exactly does resilient performance look like for pilots? Hale and Heijer (2006) define resilience not only as the ability to recover from an adverse event, but also the ability to anticipate and adjust in order to prevent adverse events. Carroll et al. (2012) propose that resilience consists of two components: 1. an initial phase characterized by the need to adapt performance to prevent or minimize the impact of the adverse event or stressor, and 2. a second phase characterized by recovery from the adverse event or stressor. When individuals are highly adaptable and effectively adjust performance, performance decrements are minimized, and the performer has less ground to make up in the recovery phase. This presentation will present a range of training approaches that, based on this model of resilience, have the potential to increase pilot adaptability and resilience. For example, there is an opportunity to bolster a pilot’s adaptability by incorporating training scenarios that center around low probability system failures/events, for which there is not a procedure or checklist. These training scenarios could be administered in a high-fidelity simulator to support the entire problem-solving process; or, the later stages of recognition and problem solving could be easily practiced in less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations such as Tactical Decision Games. With respect to a pilot bouncing back from an unexpected event, stress training approaches that induce significant levels of stress and require pilots to problem solve and make decisions under these circumstances could be incorporated to help train pilots to both recognize their stress response and learn to cope with this response in order to maintain performance.  These training approaches, and how they could be implemented within a pilot training context, will be discussed.