Sharon Ramos & Lee Davis

Threat and Error Management: Training to a Desired Outcome

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Sharon Ramos, Inflight Instructor, JetBlue University

Sharon Ramos, Inflight Instructor JetBlue University, Orlando Support Campus, Orlando, Florida. She became part of JetBlue in 2009 as an Inflight crewmember and in 2012 joined College of Inflight. Since 2012 has delivered numerous Inflight training programs; initial, recurrent, soft skills such as Passport to Success, to name a few. Concurrently, she also administers the operation and maintenance of cabin training equipment at JBU. In 2014, she had the privilege in participating with incorporating TEM to Infight’s training curriculum at JetBlue University.

Her passion and commitment for aviation started with American Trans Air as a Flight Attendant in 1994 and from 2005-2008 spent time as a Corporate Flight Attendant. Sharon is currently pursuing her Project Management Certification as well as completing her degree through JetBlue Scholars program.


Lee Davis, Instructor, Inflight Training, JetBlue Airways

Lee Davis began his career in aviation in March of 1999 as a flight attendant at Atlantic Coast Airlines. In the time since then, Lee’s career has spanned two decades and four airlines, both regional and international, with much of his time in the industry spent as a frontline flight attendant. In 2011, Lee joined JetBlue Airways as a flight attendant. In 2013, he became an Inflight Team Leader managing a group of over 100 flight attendants, and then in 2015 he joined the airline’s training department as an instructor of inflight training. Working together with a large team of instructors, Lee facilitates both initial and recurrent training for JetBlue flight attendants. He also oversees the airline’s training program for International Customer Service Representatives, or ICSRs, who provide onboard translation assistance on flights to and from Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Also, exercising the caring value on which the airline was founded, in 2017, Lee joined the board of directors of JetBlue’s Crewmember Crisis Fund, which provides financial grants to crewmembers facing significant financial crises. Lee holds a degree in Human Resources Management, and currently lives in Orlando with his husband David, who is also a JetBlue crewmember.


Threat and Error Management: Training to a Desired Outcome 

For many of us, CRM has long been a universal tool for managing events onboard which require communication, delegation, and immediate attention for successful outcomes. At JetBlue, we acknowledge that the safety and success of our flights depends on all our crewmembers, systems, processes and procedures, and not just on the pilots and flight attendants onboard. With that in mind, we have adopted a safety operating philosophy known as Threat and Error Management, or TEM, which consists of several tools divided into categories such as Communication, Team Work, and Time
and Task Management which can be used to help keep threats from becoming undesirable outcomes. The objective is to have crew members recognize threats and then use any tool or tools necessary to prevent the threat from becoming an undesirable outcome. To illustrate this, we use an old industry favorite: the Swiss cheese model. Each tool used in mitigating threats is represented by a layer of cheese, with the ultimate goal of not having the holes in the cheese (which represent the imperfection of
humans) line up with one another, which would create a clear path for a threat to become an undesirable outcome.

In this session, we’ll look at how TEM can allow instructors to take a look at the overall outcome of a real-life training scenario and determine if, irrespective of whether or not procedures were followed exactly, the overall outcome is still desirable. While we have taught and will continue to teach procedures per established standards, this approach allows crewmembers to use TEM tools to help them make decisions and mitigate threats under various circumstances. In many cases, if a crewmember can justify their deviation from standard operating procedures, and the overall outcome was still successful, an instructor can coach a crewmember to the standard.